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Using reason, or reasoning, can also be described more plainly as providing good, or the best, reasons. For example, when evaluating a moral decision, "morality is, at the very least, the effort to guide one's conduct by reason--that is, doing what there are the best reasons for doing--while giving equal [and impartial] weight to the interests of all those affected by what one does."
have attempted to study and explain , e.g. which cognitive and neural processes are engaged, and how cultural factors affect the inferences that people draw. The field of studies how reasoning may or may not be modeled computationally. considers the question of whether animals other than humans can reason.
The terms "logic" or "logical" are sometimes used as if they were identical with the term "reason" or with the concept of being "rational", or sometimes logic is seen as the most pure or the defining form of reason. For example in modern is assumed to equate to logically choice.
Reason and logic can however be thought of as distinct, although logic is one important aspect of reason. Author , characterizes the distinction in this way. Logic is done inside a system while reason is done outside the system by such methods as skipping steps, working backward, drawing diagrams, looking at examples, or seeing what happens if you change the rules of the system.
Reason is a type of and the word "" involves the attempt to describe rules or norms by which reasoning operates, so that orderly reasoning can be taught. The oldest surviving writing to explicitly consider the rules by which reason operates are the works of the especially Prior Analysis and Posterior Analysis.Although the Ancient Gre